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Acrylic polymer
Used as additives in PVC-U compounds to aid processing by helping the 'melt flow'
Additives
To be able to process PVC into plastic products, it has to be blended with other chemicals. These products are known as additives.
Adipates
A plasticiser additive used with PVC in order to improve the flexibility or the process characteristics of a thermoplastic or an elastomer.
Alkali
A soluble hydroxide of a metal substance which can be used to neutralizes acids 
Anti static agent
Additives are used to reduce or neutralize the static electricity on PVC products.
ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials
Autoclave
Vessel in which chemical reactions are carried out under pressure. PVC autoclaves are equipped with a system for stirring.
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Bio stabilizer
An additive used in PVC compounds to prevent attacks on flexible PVC from different micro-organisms. It is the plasticisers and lubricants used in flexible products that are especially prone to attack by bacteria and algae.
BPF
British Plastics Federation
Butane
(C4H10) - gaseous organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen. Each molecule contains a chain of four carbon atoms.
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Cadmium stabilizer
An additive used in PVC compounds to prevent the resin from decomposing when it is heated.
Calcium/zinc stabilizer
An additive used in PVC compounds to prevent the resin from decomposing when it is heated.
Calendaring  
To press or smooth material between rollers
Caustic soda
The common name for Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) a colorless, odorless liquid produced as part of the same process that creates chlorine from brine. A strong alkali which is used as a neutralizing agent in a wide range of chemical processes.
Chlorine
(Cl2) One of the most common chemical elements which can be derived from salt using by electrolysis. Used as a raw material for the production of PVC. Also used in the manufacture of a range of solvents, pharmaceutical preparations, insecticides, weed killers and other polymers. Used as a bleaching agent, and as a disinfectant e.g. in drinking water and in swimming pools
CIA
Chemical Industries Association
Cladding
(Also sometimes called 'sidings') Extruded PVC-U boards used extensively in the building industry as outdoor weather-resistant facade panels.
COMAH
Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations 1999
Corrosion
Colors the effect of degradation on either the interior or exterior surface of non-PVC pipe caused by various environmental contaminants.
CPVC Pipe
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride pipe, formulated for hot water applications.
Cracker
A furnace where composite gas molecules are split into their component chemicals
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Deburring
The process of removing rough edges or shards from the end of a pipe after it has been cut.
Dichloroethane
(C2H4Cl2) (EDC) An intermediate product produced by reacting ethylene with and chlorine. Liquid at normal pressure and temperature. This is fed into cracker furnaces where the molecules are split into VCM and hydrochloric acid. The hydrochloric acid is recirculated in the process, while the VCM is used as the raw material for the production of PVC.
DOP
abbreviation of Dioctyl Phtalate, used as a plasticiser in PVC applications. Other types of plasticiser have higher or lower molecular weights.
Dryblend
The powder form of PVC-U compounds for rigid products. PVC in powder form is combined with a liquid plasticiser in an agitated trough called a ribbon blender or in a tumbling container. This process is called dry blending, because the liquid penetrates the pores of the resin, and the final mixture, containing as much as 50 percent plasticiser, is still a free-flowing powder that appears to be dry.
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ECVM
European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers
EDC
Dichloroethane
Elastomer
A material that has the properties of natural rubber
Emulsion PVC
Also known as Paste PVC has finer particles (0.2 - 0.50 micron) than S-PVC (> 50 microns).
Ethane
(C2H6) - a gaseous organic compound containing carbon and hydrogen. Each molecule contains two carbon atoms
Ethene
Another name for Ethylene
Ethylene
(H2C=CH2) - also known as Ethene, the simplest unsaturated hydrocarbon having two carbon atoms linked by a double bond. Ethylene is used as a raw material in the manufacture of polyethylene and vinyl chloride (VCM)
Extender resins
Extender PVC resins (also known as filler PVC) can be produced by either the emulsion or micro-suspension process and has particle sizes between those of paste (0.2 - 0.50 micron) and S-PVC (> 50 microns).
Extrusion
A method of processing plastics where the material is pushed through a die under pressure to form a continuous strip of a particular shape  
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Filler
An additive in a PVC compound to both reduce costs and add performance properties (impact strength, less sticking to metal surfaces, increased stiffness). The most common are Calcium carbonate, dolomite, kaolin and chalk. Even glass spheres and glass fibre are used as fillers.
Foam stabilizer
An additive that has a stabilizing effect in mechanical foam processes (where air is whipped into PVC compound). Most of these products are types of organic soaps or are based on silicones.
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Gelled compounds
The pelleted form of plasticized PVC compounds for flexible products
GIR
Gamma irradiation resistance
Glycerol mono oleate
An essential lubricant additive in PVC-U compounds to aid processing.
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HDPE
High Density Polyethylene
Heat stabilizer
A heat stabilizer is included in all PVC compounds in order to prevent the resin from decomposing when it is heated.
Hydrocarbon
Chemical compound composed of the elements carbon and hydrogen
Hydrochloric acid  
A strong acid consisting of a solution of hydrogen chloride in water
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ICEA
Insulated Cable Engineers Association (formerly IPCEA).
IEC
International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Impact modifier
Ingredients in the PVC formula that help to keep it from breaking in cold temperatures. In warm weather, the PVC itself resists impacts. In cold weather, the impact modifiers (like little rubber balls throughout the mix) help keep it somewhat flexible and extra strong.
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K-value
This is a characteristic of the PVC resin which describes the length of the polymer molecules. The test method used to calculate the K-value is determined by ISO 1628-2 (DIN 53726).
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Lead stabilizer
An additive used in PVC compounds to prevent the resin from decomposing when it is heated.
LDPE
Low Density Polyethylene
LLDPE
Linear Low Density Polyethylene
Lubricants
Internal lubricants reduce the friction between the PVC particles during compounding. External lubricants will adjust friction/release against hot metal surfaces. Other lubricants will control fusion time or give anti-blocking properties to PVC films (prevent their tendency to cling to each other).
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MBS
Methacrylate/butadiene/styrene
Methacrylate
A polymer used as an additive in PVC-U compounds to aid processing by helping the 'melt flow'
Methacrylate/butadiene/
styrene
A polymer additive used in PVC compounds as an 'impact modifier' to improves PVC-U's impact resistance. This is achieved by forming a dispersion phase in the PVC matrix, which creates blockages to crack propagation.
Microsuspension resin
(Also known as paste or emulsion PVC) has finer particles (0.2 - 0.50 micron) than S-PVC (> 50 microns)
Monomer
A relatively simple compound that can react to form a polymer (i.e., polymerize).
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Organo-tin stabilizer
An additive used in PVC compounds to prevent the resin from decomposing when it is heated.
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Paste PVC
Paste PVC (also known generically as emulsion PVC) has finer particles (0.2 - 0.50 micron) than S-PVC (> 50 microns). It can be produced by the emulsion process, the micro-suspension process or as in the case of Hydro a combination of both techniques.
Petrochemicals
Chemicals produced using oil and gas
Phthalate
A plasticiser additive used with PVC in order to improve the flexibility or the process characteristics of a thermoplastic or an elastomer.
Phthalate Esters
Organic compounds used as softeners in PVC to make the plastic soft and flexible. The largest group of softeners/ plasticizers
Pigments
Additives in PVC compounds to give a particular color
Pitting
The marking or scarring of the exterior surface of non-PVC pipe typically caused by an external force or blow.
Plastic
A generic term for any polymer material. Derived from the Greek word plasticos, which means to form or to make ductile.
Plasticised PVC
A PVC compound that has been made flexible by the use of additives
Plasticiser
A plasticiser is an additive used with PVC in order to improve the flexibility or the process characteristics of a thermoplastic or an elastomer. They are oil-like, high boiling point liquids with good thermal stability. The most common ones are based on organic esters e.g. phthalates, adipates and trimellitates.
Plastisols
A plastisol is a dispersion of resin (or resins) in a liquid plasticiser. The plastisol will consist of the PVC homopolymer or copolymer and additives both liquid and dry. The resins used range in average particle size from 0.2 to 50 mm. Plastisol resins are also called dispersion resins or paste resins, regardless of whether they are made by emulsion polymerisation, micro-suspension polymerisation or as is the case of Hydro's Pevikon plastisol resins by a process borrowing from both techniques.
Polyester
A common type of thermosetting plastic (i.e. maintains its shape on being heated) which is used in the manufacture of pipes, chemical plant equipment, leisure boats, furniture and skiing equipment
Polyethylene (polyethene)
A common type of plastic produced from ethylene and used in the making of pipes, foil and packaging material
Polyethylene wax
An essential lubricant additive in PVC-U compounds to aid processing.
Polymer
A compound consisting of one or more large molecules formed from repeated units of smaller molecules
Polymerization
The process of making a polymer. Joining the molecules together in long chains
Polypropylene (polypropene)
A common type of plastic produced from propylene and used in the manufacture of pipes and tubing, household goods and medical equipment
Polyvinyl chloride
Commonly abbreviated to the initials PVC. The homopolymer of vinyl chloride. A thermoplastic made from sodium chloride (salt) salt and ethane (natural gas). It is a non-toxic, odorless, flame resistant, bio-stable and chemically resistant white powder which, when mixed with different additives and treated in various production processes, can be formed into a large number of plastic products. The term PVC is also generically used to describe products made of PVC (as for example PVC flooring, PVC gloves, etc...)
Polyurethane
A plastic material used in sporting goods, foam mattresses and for insulating refrigerators and freezers
PP
Polypropylene
Propane
(C3H8) a hydrocarbon having three carbon atoms
Propylene (propene)
(C3H6) - a simple hydrocarbon having a three-carbon-atom chain but with a double bond between two carbon atoms and a single bond between the other two. Propylene is the raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene.
P-PVC
Paste PVC (also known generically as emulsion PVC) has finer particles (0.2 - 0.50 micron) than S-PVC (> 50 microns). It can be produced by the emulsion process, the micro-suspension process or as in the case of Hydro a combination of both techniques.
PS
Polystyrene
PVC
Polyvinyl chloride
PVC Co-ordination Group
An organization comprising the UK retailers Asda, CWS, Tesco and Waitrose, and UK PVC manufacturers EVC and Hydro Polymers concerned with adopting environmental standards for the production of PVC in the UK .
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Recycling  
Re-processing of products at their end of life into component materials so that they can be reformed into brand new products
Resin
Any of a class of solid or semi-solid organic products of natural or synthetic origin, generally of high molecular weight with no definite melting point. Most resins are polymers
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Shore Hardness
measures the degree of hardness of soft PVC compounds. Two shore scales are used: shore A from 60 (=softer) to 90 (harder) for the softer types, shore D from 30 (softer, equivalent to shore A 85) to 60.
Silicone
A common type of plastic used in moulds, filler paste, cables and sealant compounds
Slurry
well-known industrial methods.
Sodium chloride
Chemical name for common salt
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
Chemical name for caustic soda
S-PVC
S-PVC or suspension PVC is produced as its name indicates by the suspension process and has a coarser particle size than paste PVC (> 50 microns).
Stabilizer
More precisely heat stabilizer : this is an additive that prevents the decomposition of the PVC resin during the processing. The type and dosage depend of the kind of process. The main stabilizers contain baryum, calcium, lead, tin, organics or zinc. The PVC Chain Industry made a voluntary commitment to phase out lead in new products by 2015. Usage of Cadmium in new products ceased in 2001.
Stearic acid
A lubricant additive in plasticised PVC compounds to aid processing.
Stripper
Device where the solvent is removed from the secondary material by injection of steam
Suspension resin
A PVC resin produced by the suspension process that has a coarser particle size than paste PVC (> 50 microns).
Sustainability
An economical cycle of production, use and disposal of products that can be maintained indefinitely without denuding resources or damaging the environment or society
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Terpolymer
A polymer additive used in PVC compounds as an 'impact modifier' to improves PVC-U's impact resistance. This is achieved by forming a dispersion phase in the PVC matrix, which creates blockages to crack propagation.
The Natural Step  
A scientifically based methodology for developing a 'sustainable' system developed in Sweden
Thermal stabilizers
A thermal stabilizer is included in all PVC compounds in order to prevent the resin from decomposing when it is heated.
Thermoforming
The process of heating a thermoplastic sheet to a working temperature and then forming it into a finished shape by means of heat or pressure.
Thermo setting plastic
Plastic that once heated and formed cannot be reheated and reformed
Thermoplastic
A material that will repeatedly soften when heated and harden when cooled.
Thermoplastic elastomer
A very flexible type of thermoplastic that has the properties of natural rubber
TPE
Thermoplastic elastomer
Trimellitates
A plasticiser additive used with PVC in order to improve the flexibility or the process characteristics of a thermoplastic or an elastomer. They are oil-like, high boiling point liquids with good thermal stability.
Trunking
A protective channel made of extruded PVC-U to contain pipes or cables
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U-PVC
Unplasticised PVC
Ultraviolet Inhibitors
Ingredients in the PVC formula that protect the PVC from the damaging rays of the sun. If left unprotected, PVC would change color and become more likely to break.
Unplasticised PVC
A rigid grade of PVC (as used in the construction industry for window frames etc)
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VCM
The abbreviation for Vinyl chloride monomer
Vinyl
The term vinyl is often used in the place of PVC (for example 'vinyl flooring, vinyl gloves, etc...).
Vinyl 2010
An initiative developed by the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers (ECVM) for the European PVC industry to achieve a series of environmental objectives by the year 2010
Vinyl chloride monomer
(CH2=CHCl) (VCM) a colorless gas produced from (57%) chlorine and (43%) ethylene and used as a raw material in PVC production. When the basic VCM molecule is polymerised into long chains of molecules, it results in the polymer known as polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
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Water Hammer
The loud, brief, reverberating sound emanating from a piping system following a sudden pressure surge.
White mineral oils
A lubricant additive used in plasticised PVC compounds to aid processing
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